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Figure 1: Interpretation of the results of a noninferiority study. The vertical solid line represents the observed effect of the current standard, and the vertical dotted line is located at a distance of the predetermined inferiority margin (or delta) below it. For noninferiority to be established, it is expected that the lower bound of the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the observed effect of the new treatment is not below the dotted line. Hence, for the lower three lines (lines 5–7), noninferiority is not established. For the next three lines (lines 2–4), noninferiority is established. The result represented by line 1 establishes not only noninferiority but also superiority (since the lower bound of the 95% CIs of the effect of the new intervention exceeds the observed effect of the comparator or the current standard intervention) 
